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TechKnowledge Technology Stories - Part 2: Connecting Everything Everywhere…

A few months ago, I started working on TechKnowledge Technology Stories , a series of videos looking at how technology has evolved over the years and how it will continue to evolve in the future. The latest video is looking at connectivity in general. It is embedded below and the slides could be obtained from 3G4G page here . Related Posts :  Connectivity Technology Blog: Introduction to Radar – the Challenges and Opportunities Connectivity Technology Blog: 5G NR (New Radio) for Beginners Connectivity Technology Blog: Almost everything you need to know about Wi-Fi 7 (IEEE 802.11be) Connectivity Technology Blog: 5G Time Sensitive Networking (TSN) for Industrial Communications Connectivity Technology Blog: Cellular Connectivity Technology Landscape and Standards for Industrial IoT Connectivity Technology Blog: Deutsche Bahn to get Seamless Mobile Network Along all Tracks Connectivity Technology Blog: R&S Technical Explainer on 3GPP 5G Non Terrestrial Networks (NTN)  
Recent posts

Li-Fi and Other Visible Light Communications (VLC) Standards

I have been writing about LiFi and other light based communications for a while but it looks like these are finally being standardised and have a potential to be used in commercial devices for communications. The first thing to mention here is that like there are different brand names for Wi-Fi (like Wi-Fi 5, Wi-Fi 6, etc.), we probably need different names for LiFi. In fact I am not even sure if we write LiFi as one word or Li-Fi. LiFi Tech News describes the technologies as follows: ITU-T G.9991 standard is the 1st LiFi standard specifying the system architecture, physical (PHY) layer and data link layer (DLL) for high-speed indoor LiFi transceivers, the LiFi access points within LED and infrared lamps. There are also at least 3 IEEE standards that are being developed to bring LiFi to the mass market. These are the IEEE 802.11bb, IEEE 802.15.7 and IEEE 802.15.13. IEEE 802.11bb defines one medium access control (MAC) and several physical layer (PHY) specifications for wireless conn

Deutsche Telekom Demonstrates 12 Gbps on 5G Using 6 GHz Band

6 GHz band is in demand for possible use with Wi-Fi or Cellular use. The fate of this band will be decided in the upcoming World Radiocommunication Conference 2023 (WRC-23). In the meantime this has provided license to mobile operators to try new things out. Recently in a press release, Deutsche Telekom (DT) announced that they have managed to achieve 12 Gbps+ using carrier aggregation (CA) with 5G licensed band. The following is an extract from their press release : Telekom has set a new world record in mobile radio: In Alzey, a data rate of 12 gigabits per second was measured during tests. Data speed and bandwidth were thus up to twelve times higher than in today's 5G network. These high data rates were made possible by the additional use of the frequency spectrum at 6 gigahertz (6 GHz). These frequencies are not yet available for mobile communications. At the World Radiocommunication Conference in November, the use from 2025 onwards will be discussed. For the test under real con

Softbank's Cylindrical Antenna for HAPS to Reduce Handovers

One of the challenges with HAPS or even tethered balloon is that when the balloon or HAPS turns, the cells change position and this can result in handovers even for users that are stationary. This unnecessary signalling can be reduced, as Softbank explained, with an innovative antenna designed to reduce these. Softbank shared this news last year while its subsidiary HAPS Mobile shared a video here . Quoting from the article: People are able to use their mobile phones when they’re on the move, such as when they’re riding in cars and trains, for example. They can do this thanks to what’s called the “handovers.” In the handover process, when a mobile phone moves further away from a base station and the signal becomes weak, it automatically connects to another base station from which it can receive a stronger signal. With HAPS, the airborne base station moves continuously while the receiver stays stationary, and this causes handovers. A HAPS aircraft delivers network connectivity with rad

'Gigabit Innovation Track' (GINT) Gets Green Light in Germany

Couple of years back I blogged about how Deutsche Bahn and Deutsche Telekom (DT) are radically improving mobile reception on trains in Germany with the expectation that in future, passengers using the DT network will be able to make calls and surf the internet on all routes without interruption – in much better quality than currently available. Now in another announcement , Deutsche Bahn (DB), Ericsson, O2 Telefónica and Vantage Towers have announced that they are working together to develop a solution that would establish an extensive 5G mobile communications infrastructure along train tracks in Germany. The press release said: The new infrastructure will give train passengers gigabit speeds for their telephone and data connections and provide high-performance transmission technology for further digitalizing rail operations. Today the partners received the official word from the German Federal Ministry for Digital and Transport (BMDV) that they will receive funding to test innovativ

Is LTE Cat 1bis Uniting the Fragmented Cellular IoT Market?

There are just too many options when it comes to IoT. LoRaWAN is probably the winner from the unlicensed camp with plethora of other options also available. On the licensed front while LTE-M and NB-IoT haven't enjoyed the success they were touted to, other cIoT options aren't doing that badly. In their recently released whitepaper entitled, 'Understanding the benefits of LTE Cat 1bis technology', Qualcomm explains: LTE-M and NB-IoT are two IoT-specific standards introduced in 3GPP release 13. They provide low power operation, extended coverage range and low data rate; they are aptly called low-power wide area networking, or LPWAN technologies. In Release 13, LTE Cat 1bis was also added to the standards. Cat 1bis requires one receive- (Rx) antenna, making it easier and cheaper to build devices in smaller form factors. Recently, IoT use cases involving drones and industrial automation have evolved, requiring either higher throughput, lower latency or both. 5G or higher-

Connecting Large Offshore Wind Farms with Private LTE & 5G Networks

Offshore wind farms are typically located in remote areas, making it challenging to establish reliable connectivity using public mobile networks. Private mobile networks allow wind farm operators to deploy dedicated coverage in the vicinity of the wind farm, ensuring consistent and high-quality network connectivity. UK-based wireless telecommunications provider, Vilicom, is providing a cloud-enabled private mobile network for the Moray East wind farm for Vestas. A press release , couple of years back, explained what they were doing:  Currently in its construction phase 20 miles off the Scottish coast, the Moray East wind farm will comprise of 100 V164-9.5 MW units, giving a combined total power output of 950 MW across its impressive 295km2 plot. The turbines, supplied by Vestas, will generate sufficient power to supply clean energy to approximately one million households across the United Kingdom. Moray East will bring more low-carbon power to the UK, and will continue to support the l

NICT Japan's Versatile Miniaturized Lasercom Terminals for Moving Platforms

National Institute of Information and Communications Technology ( NICT ) is Japan’s sole National Research and Development Agency specializing in the field of information and communications technology. It is charged with promoting ICT sector as well as research and development in ICT, which drives economic growth and creates an affluent, safe and secure society. Free-space optical communications have the potential to bring the bandwidth of optical fibers to moving platforms, greatly enhancing their communication capabilities. This communication technology has already become mature after numerous demonstrations during the last few years. Free-space laser communication is expected to play a key role to cope with the demanding bandwidth requirements of 5G (and beyond) networks to support an increasing number of wireless terminals disseminated throughout the world and generating an unprecedented amount of data. For this purpose, practical and versatile lasercom systems will be necessary to

Amazon's Project Kuiper Megaconstellation Aims to Deliver Fast, Affordable Broadband

Amazon's Project Kuiper is an initiative to increase global broadband access through a constellation of 3,236 satellites in low earth orbit (LEO). Their mission is to deliver fast, affordable broadband to unserved and underserved communities around the world. A post on Amazon explains: Project Kuiper started off as an internal code name for the program—and it stuck. The name refers to the Kuiper Belt, a region of the solar system that exists beyond the eight major planets. The Kuiper Belt itself is named after the late Dutch astronomer Gerard Kuiper, who is considered by many to be the father of modern planetary science. Project Kuiper is a long-term initiative. Our FCC license requires that we deploy and operate at least half of our satellite constellation by July 2026. We’re preparing to launch our first two prototype satellites in early 2023, and we expect to provide service to the earliest Project Kuiper customers by the end of 2024. This marketing video is a good explainer o

IEEE 802.11bn Ultra High Reliability (UHR), a.k.a. Wi-Fi 8

Back in 2020 we looked at the introductory post of Wi-Fi 7 which was followed up by a more detailed post in Feb 2022. We are now following on with an introductory post on the next generation Wi-Fi.  A new paper on arXiv explores the journey towards IEEE 802.11bn Ultra High Reliability (UHR), the amendment that will form the basis of Wi-Fi 8. Quoting selected items from the paper  below: After providing an overview of the nearly completed Wi-Fi 7 standard, we present new use cases calling for further Wi-Fi evolution. We also outline current standardization, certification, and spectrum allocation activities, sharing updates from the newly formed UHR Study Group. We then introduce the disruptive new features envisioned for Wi-Fi 8 and discuss the associated research challenges. Among those, we focus on access point coordination and demonstrate that it could build upon 802.11be multi-link operation to make Ultra High Reliability a reality in Wi-Fi 8. The IEEE 802.11bn UHR: Whose Study Gro