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Road to 6 GHz in Europe - ideal for Wi-Fi and 5G in unlicensed bands

When I last wrote about 802.11ax (a.k.a. Wi-Fi 6), I mentioned that the 5G Frequency Range 1 (FR1) has been updated to 7.125 GHz. This brought it in line with the proposed frequency for next generation Wi-Fi called 802.11be. While in theory this is great, different regions would have to release the frequency above their current 5GHz Wi-Fi frequencies.

I came across this good summary regarding the road to 6 GHz in Europe. I guess once we reach 6GHz, we can go further to 7.125 GHz, in the next 3-5 years.

From the description provided by the author:

In Europe as well as the USA, the 6 GHz band is considered for unlicensed use. This can enable the use of Wi-Fi (WLAN) in the band.

The presentation introduces you to the domain of regulatory and spectrum processes, with a deep dive on the European institutions (CEPT, ECC, ETSI). Furthermore, the incumbents of the 6 GHz band are briefly introduced.

The slides and the video is embedded below.


2019 - Road to 6 GHz in Europe from PhilippEbbecke

Th…
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The move to 10G PON from GPON and other PON

A passive optical network (PON) is a fiber-optic telecommunications technology for delivering broadband network access to end-customers. Its architecture implements a point-to-multipoint topology, in which a single optical fiber serves multiple endpoints by using unpowered (passive) fiber optic splitters to divide the fiber bandwidth between multiple access points. Passive optical networks are often referred to as the "last mile" between an Internet service provider (ISP) and its customers.

GPON stands for Gigabit Passive Optical Networks. GPON is a point-to-multi point access mechanism. Its main characteristic is the use of passive splitters in the fibre distribution network, enabling one single feeding fibre from the provider’s central office to serve multiple homes and small businesses.

I first wrote about the GPON standard 12 years back, in 2007. Since then it has evolved and has different flavours.


Source So while we are still using GPON heavily today, there is already a …

Is LiFi (Light-Fidelity) Ready for Beyond-5G?

Last year I wrote about LiFi, how it can play a role in densification and beyond-5G. LiFi (sometimes written as Li-Fi but I believe LiFi is the correct way to write it) has been in news recently because of world's first backhaul trial with an ordinary solar cell as data receiver in Orkney.
Immensely proud of the @LRDC @kikepoves team for the successful launch of the world's first #LiFi backhaul trial with an ordinary solar cell as data receiver. Thanks to @DCMS@5GRuralFirst#5G project. This means people on Graemsay (Orkney) can now watch 4k TV! pic.twitter.com/SkQw8gEn1M — Harald Haas (@dlarah15) July 4, 2019 Land Mobile has a good write up on this here.
There is also misunderstanding sometime about different types of light communications being referred to as LiFi. The picture above shows difference between OCC (Optical Camera Communications), VLC (Visible Light Communications), LiFi & FSO (Free Space Optics).

Rather than talk too much about the technology, I will point …

Beyond Hyper-Connectivity

Dr. Dong-Seung Kwon, ETRI spoke at the 1st 6G Wireless Summit in Oulu back in March. His talk was focussed on beyond hyper-connectivity.

According to PCMag:

In general, hyperconnected refers to the high-tech communications of the 21st century delivered primarily by the Internet, all of which is 24/7 and never ceases. It encompasses radio, TV, phone and video calls, texting, email, blogs, forums, chat rooms, instant messaging and social media, as well as access to corporate data. The smartphone has been a major catalyst, connecting more people to more things than any other electronic device.

The following is the summary of Dr. Dong-Seung talk:

We are now moving toward hyper-connected world by 5G mobile technology, which is to extend the market to vertical market and the true personalized service keeping privacy. While recently we have experienced the various intelligent services based on massive big data coming from the current 4G technology, I would like to mention the several technica…

Connectivity from the Stratosphere by Airbus' Zephyr

The following post uses a report from ITU news in combination with a presentation from UNESCAP.

Zephyr is an ultra-light solar-powered high-altitude platform station (HAPS). Solar energy powers daytime flight as well as re-charging batteries for night-time operations. It has a 25 metre wingspan (one third the width of an Airbus A380) and can launch from a selection of sites strategically positioned across the globe.

Zephyr flies above the weather and regular air traffic, covering distances of over 1000 nautical miles a day — that’s 1852 kilometres! Of particular interest to telecoms operators is Zephyr’s ability to remain persistent over a designated location for long periods of time, delivering connectivity services across a wide area.

Zephyr weighs less than 75 kilograms, the same as two aircraft seats. It is this highly optimized aircraft mass, together with the available power of the Zephyr propulsion system and the high efficiency of the solar cell technology, which permits Zephyr …

Fixed Wireless Acess (FWA): A fantastic alternative to home broadband

Getting broadband to your house or place of work is always a nightmare. If you own the place, then it's okay for holes to be drilled in the walls, etc. For a lot of people renting accommodation or premises, they may not have an option to get fiber or wired broadband of their choice. In addition, the ISPs have long term contracts and strict clauses that people end up paying a lot more than they though they will.
Almost three months, 11 Openreach engineers (one drilled through the new fibre cable), a broken window, no show appointments and we finally have fibre-to-home broadband! Woo. #disappointment#breathholdingchampions@OpenreachHelp@bt_ukpic.twitter.com/z0Dguoh52e — BAble (@benwablett) August 29, 2019
In such scenarios Fixed Wireless is a fantastic alternative to a wired alternative. While traditional fixed wireless requires an external antenna for reliable connectivity and higher throughput, many new CPEs (Customer Premises Equipments) are being built with high gain sensitive …

The Role of Microwave for 5G Backhaul

Came across this interesting webinar by IHS Markit Technology on 'The role of next gen microwave in the 5G era' with Huawei. The video of that is embedded below. The main speakers include Richard Webb, Research Director, Mobile Backhaul and Small Cells, IHS Markit and Renato Lombardi, Huawei Fellow and Head of Italy Research Center, Huawei Technologies

The evolution of 5G places new demands on the backhaul/fronthaul network and drives technology decisions for operators. As you can see the picture above, Microwave is still expected to play a huge role in case of 5G backhaul.


The webinar explores the challenges for the next generation of transport network in terms of architecture, key performance metrics, and technology solutions as operators seek to deliver more granular services and latency- and bandwidth-sensitive applications, and to support new mobile devices. In particular, it looks at the capabilities of microwave as part of the changing backhaul network as operators rol…