Skip to main content


Berlin Subway gets 4G/LTE, Getting Ready for 5G

Mobile connectivity is becoming a necessity and this is compelling mobile operators to provide coverage in very hard to reach areas within cities. One such example is in subways and metros where connectivity enhances the overall quality of life for commuters, improves safety and efficiency, and supports the growth of smart, connected urban environments. There are several other advantages like emergency communications, being able to communicate with friends/family/colleagues as and when required, and much more that I an not going to expand here. Some years back we made an explainer on how connectivity is provided in case of metro/subway here . While there were limited examples available then, we have seen a boom in underground connectivity since then.  Recently O2 Telef√≥nica in Germany announced (in German, translated via Google translate): It was now possible for all passengers of the Berliner Verkehrsbetriebe (BVG) to access high speed connectivity. The Berlin subway, the backbone of
Recent posts

How is Fixed Wireless Access (FWA) deployed?

We have covered Fixed Wireless Access (FWA) as part of different posts in various blogs (see related posts at the bottom) but today we look at how FWA is deployed, thanks to a short tutorial by Mpirical. Before we go to the tutorial, we should also mention why we are discussing this again. This is mainly because FWA take-up is growing in many parts of the world and has gained importance as it's now providing the MNOs with a new source of (5G) revenue. Here's an interesting stat too: The monthly usage per AirFibre (FWA) subscription is 390 GB, 30% *higher* than for a JioFiber subscription. — Tefficient ūüö• (@tefficient) April 22, 2024  Back in April, ABI Research predicted that worldwide FWA subscriptions are on a strong growth trajectory of a 14% CAGR 2023-29 and are set to reach almost 265 million by 2029. 5G FWA is expected to account for 45% of the total subscription base by 2029, reaching 118 million at a CAGR of 35%. Ericsson's Mobility Report

Qualcomm Webinar - 5G from space: The final frontier for global connectivity

It's been a while since we created our first NTN tutorial. Since then NTN standardisation and development has gained significant momentum. There has also been no shortage of conferences and seminars dedicated to NTN, the most recent we have blogged about being  ETSI's Conference on "Non-Terrestrial Networks, a Native Component of 6G". In a Light Reading webinar last year, Qualcomm speakers discussed:  How the 3GPP standards roadmap for 5G non-terrestrial networking (NTN), starting with Release 17 specifications, can make satellite connectivity easily accessible to people and things globally How multiple companies are in the fray to establish 5G-capable satellite constellations and the capabilities they could bring along on the journey to ubiquitous connectivity How Qualcomm’s longstanding experience in satellite communications, and 5G leadership, makes it the ideal technology partner for 5G IoT-NTN and NR-NTN What is being envisioned for the future with 5G Advanced

Telenor's IoT Prediction Report 2024

Earlier this year, Telenor IoT, a leading brand in IoT Connectivity, published its annual IoT Predictions Report. It explains how combining Artificial Intelligence (AI) and the Internet of Things (IoT), also known as AIoT or AI4IoT, is necessary for companies to stay competitive in today’s digital world. Quoting from the report : AIoT is the convergence of AI technologies into an IoT application where IoT represents data and AI - a set of analytical tools that enable extraction of value from data, also commonly termed ‘Internet of Intelligent Things’, ‘IoT with AI’, and ‘IoT Machine Learning’. These terms can be used interchangeably, and each describes an architecture that integrates both technologies in a single solution, a combination which can create a transformative impact. As seen in the diagram to the left, the integration of AI into an IoT deployment can occur at either the edge or in the cloud. The ability of cloud computing to offer scale, flexibility, and power beyond the re

The Evolution of Wi-Fi 7 (IEEE 802.11be EHT) to Wi-Fi 8 (IEEE 802.11bn UHR)

When I posted about Wi-Fi 8 last year, I didn't realise that Wi-Fi was a popular topic on this blog and not only did it make it to the Top 5 posts , the previous post on Wi-Fi 7 made it too, even though it was posted back in the end of 2020. The paper posted last year has undergone revision and a new version of 'What Will Wi-Fi 8 Be? A Primer on IEEE 802.11bn Ultra High Reliability' is available here . Quoting the abstract:  What will Wi-Fi 8 be? Driven by the strict requirements of emerging applications, next-generation Wi-Fi is set to prioritize Ultra High Reliability (UHR) above all. In this paper, we explore the journey towards IEEE 802.11bn UHR, the amendment that will form the basis of Wi-Fi 8. We first present new use cases calling for further Wi-Fi evolution and associated standardization, certification, and spectrum allocation efforts. We then introduce a selection of the main disruptive features envisioned for Wi-Fi 8 and their associated research challenges, re

5G NB-IoT NTN Coverage Extension by Sateliot

Sateliot is a 5G NB-IoT NTN (Rel. 17) Coverage Extension satellite operator in SSO Low Earth Orbit for wholesale service to MNO (NB-IoT Coverage Extension). They claims to be the first satellite operator to offer IoT connectivity over standard 5G NB-IoT. According to this presentation , they have been a member of 3GPP since 2019, being, among space companies, the major contributor to the Rel. 17 IoT NTN Study Item. In April 2023, Sateliot successfully launched The GroundBreaker, the first-ever satellite under 5G Standard to Democratize IoT, via SpaceX Falcon 9. The GroundBreaker is the first of a 250 LEO satellite constellation, which will work as cell towers from space. In July 2022, Telefónica announced that it's collaborating with Sateliot through its divisions Telefónica Tech and Telefónica Global Solutions (TGS). The eventual goal being the development of an innovative connectivity service with dual 5G NB-IoT technology in which Sateliot's new satellite network will be

Top 5 Posts for 2023

As per the tradition, here are the top 5 most viewed posts from 2023. These posts were not necessarily posted this year, so I have added the month and year it was posted. Laser Inter-Satellite Links (LISLs) in a Starlink Constellation , Feb. 2022 CSI-RS vs SRS Beamforming , Mar. 2021 IEEE 802.11bn Ultra High Reliability (UHR), a.k.a. Wi-Fi 8 , Mar. 2023 IEEE 802.11be Extremely High Throughput (EHT), a.k.a. Wi-Fi 7 , Nov. 2020 5G NR-NTN Demos make a Debut at MWC 2023 , Mar. 2023 If you had a favourite post, let us know in the comments below. Related Posts :  The 3G4G Blog: Top 10 Blog Posts and Top 5 Videos for 2023 Free 6G Training: Top 10 Posts for 2023 Telecoms Infrastructure Blog: Top 5 Posts For 2023 Operator Watch Blog: Top 5 Posts for 2023 Private Networks Technology Blog: Top 5 Posts for 2023 Connectivity Technology Blog: Top Posts of 2022 Connectivity Technology Blog: Top 5 Posts for 2021 Connectivity Technology Blog: Top 5 Posts for 2020  

KDDI Prepares for Disasters with Vehicle-Mounted Base Stations Backhauled via Starlink

KDDI is a big fan of SpaceX's Starlink satellites. Earlier this year I talked about how it's working to solve rural connectivity issue in Japan with the help of Starlink. In August this year, KDDI signed an agreement with SpaceX to bring Satellite-to-Cellular (Direct-to-Device) service to Japan.  Along with solving the connectivity challenges, KDDI is also looking at Starlink to solve the backhaul challenge in case if disaster strikes that destroys the ground infrastructure. A press release in July detailed this as follows: KDDI and KDDI Engineering will deploy vehicle-mounted base stations and portable base stations that use the satellite broadband service "Starlink" as a backhaul line starting in July 2023, and will deploy approximately 200 base stations, including ship-type base stations, by the end of fiscal 2023. The machines will be introduced nationwide. Through this, we aim to provide customers with high-speed, low-latency au communications even in the even

TechKnowledge Technology Stories - Part 2: Connecting Everything Everywhere…

A few months ago, I started working on TechKnowledge Technology Stories , a series of videos looking at how technology has evolved over the years and how it will continue to evolve in the future. The latest video is looking at connectivity in general. It is embedded below and the slides could be obtained from 3G4G page here . Related Posts :  Connectivity Technology Blog: Introduction to Radar – the Challenges and Opportunities Connectivity Technology Blog: 5G NR (New Radio) for Beginners Connectivity Technology Blog: Almost everything you need to know about Wi-Fi 7 (IEEE 802.11be) Connectivity Technology Blog: 5G Time Sensitive Networking (TSN) for Industrial Communications Connectivity Technology Blog: Cellular Connectivity Technology Landscape and Standards for Industrial IoT Connectivity Technology Blog: Deutsche Bahn to get Seamless Mobile Network Along all Tracks Connectivity Technology Blog: R&S Technical Explainer on 3GPP 5G Non Terrestrial Networks (NTN)  

Li-Fi and Other Visible Light Communications (VLC) Standards

I have been writing about LiFi and other light based communications for a while but it looks like these are finally being standardised and have a potential to be used in commercial devices for communications. The first thing to mention here is that like there are different brand names for Wi-Fi (like Wi-Fi 5, Wi-Fi 6, etc.), we probably need different names for LiFi. In fact I am not even sure if we write LiFi as one word or Li-Fi. LiFi Tech News describes the technologies as follows: ITU-T G.9991 standard is the 1st LiFi standard specifying the system architecture, physical (PHY) layer and data link layer (DLL) for high-speed indoor LiFi transceivers, the LiFi access points within LED and infrared lamps. There are also at least 3 IEEE standards that are being developed to bring LiFi to the mass market. These are the IEEE 802.11bb, IEEE 802.15.7 and IEEE 802.15.13. IEEE 802.11bb defines one medium access control (MAC) and several physical layer (PHY) specifications for wireless conn